The initial study of patients with reproductive problems should begin with the study of the family and personal history of health problems that could have an impact on fertility. On many occasions, when we inquire into the medical history and perform the first fertility tests, we discover other pathologies of which infertility is one of the consequences.
Thus, the basic study that should be proposed to patients at the beginning of the fertility study would include:
- A complete medical history that includes the personal and family history of the patient and the couple (if applicable).
- A gynecological history that collects the menstrual and contraceptive history of the woman, as well as the sexual habits.
- Emphasis should be placed on the habitual consumption of drugs and toxins, due to their significant impact on reproductive capacity, as well as possible exposure to environmental factors.
- A detail of reproductive history detailing the time of search for gestation, with the possible previous treatments carried out, the results obtained and the possible complications associated with them.
This interview with the patients provides very valuable information that will allow the specialist to guide the diagnosis and the first tests to be carried out.
Usually, in a first fertility consultation, a transvaginal ultrasound is usually performed to evaluate the female reproductive system (uterus, tubes and ovaries), in order to rule out the presence of alterations that could explain the reproductive failure. Likewise, this ultrasound will allow to evaluate the ovarian reserve and establish an indicative prognosis regarding the treatments that we are going to apply.
Once this first visit is completed, the appropriate tests should be requested to complete the diagnosis. The tests considered in the basic study are the hormonal study for women and the seminogram for men. Depending on the medical history, other tests such as hysterosalpingography (HSSG) may also be requested to verify the integrity of the fallopian tubes or other more complex tests depending on each particular case.